In this last article on the geometry of Earth we will discuss the expanding earth theory as put forward by Dr. James Maxlow.
Having established the idea that there is a geometric global grid around the planet, and having established the idea of black ‘whole’ matter generators in the center of planets, suns, and galaxies, as well as the idea of continual creation (Articles 91-92), we will expand on those concepts to show how it is likely that the planet started small and grew over time along the geometric grid previously discussed.
Expansion Tectonics – Expanding Earth Theory
Geometric Expansion of the Earth
Dr. Hanshou Liu (1930-present) of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and member of the American Astronomical Society, American Geophysical Union, Planetary Society, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Dr. Liu discovered when Pangaea broke up 220 million years ago; it did so along equidistant lines – forming the edges of a pyramid-shaped geometry – the tetrahedron.
He noticed (along with Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus, NOAA scientist) that the continents, volcanic ridges and seismic fault lines moved into a shape that was a combination of a cube and an octahedron.
From this phase, the earth shifted again, into the pattern discovered by Sanderson in 1971 and the Russians in 1973 – the icosa-dodecahedra geometry.
So, the breakup began as a tetrahedron – then cube-octahedron – then icosa-dodecahedron (pictured below).
Karl W. Luckert, professor emeritus of the University of Southern Minnesota and James Maxlow have demonstrated clear scientific cases that the earth has been expanding from within since at least 220 million years ago.
Dr. James Maxlow, Retired Professional Geologist
Dr. James Maxlow maintains a detailed and fascinating website found here: http://www.expansiontectonics.com/index1.html that thoroughly discusses the expanding earth theory.
Dr. Maxlow writes, “My main interest in Expansion Tectonics is driven by the fact that modern geoscientific evidence clearly shows, beyond reasonable doubt, that the concept of an Earth increasing its radius over time far better explains what is empirically observed in geology that conventional plate tectonic theory currently leads us to believe.”
We will cover some of his work now.
The old paradigm of how the Earth’s landscape formed is the idea of plate tectonics or continental drift from Dr. Alfred Wegener in 1912.
Plate tectonics “is the theory that the Earth’s outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core. The plates act like a hard and rigid shell, the lithosphere, compared to Earth’s mantle. Below the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, which is malleable or partially malleable, allowing the lithosphere to move around. How it moves around is an evolving idea.”1
It is to be noted that scientists continue to study and debate the mechanisms that move the plates.
Digging deeper into the data, it appears the idea of plate tectonics is incorrect.
The Expanding Earth Theory suggests a massive amount of matter is being generated within the earth itself. This means matter can be spontaneously generated from the Aether, just as we saw matter spontaneously generated from the center of suns and galaxies. “As above, so below.”
“Like the lack of acceptance of the continental drift theory prior to 1950, the scientific community rejected the expanding Earth theory during the pre-1960s, not because it didn’t work, but because of a lack of a known mechanism to explain the increase in Earth mass and hence radius over time. Rejection of the expanding Earth theory is now well over half a century old and, regardless of the vast amount of modern data available in support of Expansion Tectonics, most scientists today still adhere to this rejection.”2
Earth Expansion, Expanding Earth, Growing Earth, and Expansion Tectonics all refer to the changes to the shape and size of the Earth, as well as motions of the various crusts on an Earth whose surface area increases in time in accordance with an increase in Earth radius.
Expansion Tectonics vs. Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics insist the radius and mass of the Earth remains constant over time.
This theory was formulated well before the advent of modern space-based observations about the Earth which now suggest otherwise.
It claims as each ocean opens, new volcanic lava extrudes along mid-ocean-ridge spreading centers allowing new seafloor crust to solidify and form.
To maintain a constant radius Earth, it is postulated that an equal amount of pre-existing crust must be disposed of elsewhere and returned to the mantle by a theorized process called subduction.
Subduction forms the primary basis of plate tectonic theory – it is essential in maintaining a static radius Earth.
There is a fatal flaw in plate tectonic reconstructions, whereby a suitable explanation cannot be given to explain why there are no subduction zones available to absorb the huge amount of Southern Ocean seafloor crustal spreading.
Earth radius and mass are not constant over time in accordance with modern space-based observations.
Volcanic lava extruded along the mid-ocean-ridge spreading centers widens the oceans and increases the surface areas of seafloor crust.
Fluids and gases originating from within the lava are expelled during eruption adding new water and gases to the oceans and atmosphere over time.
The increase in surface area of the oceans occurs as a direct result of an increase in Earth radius.
Because of the increase in Earth radius and surface area there is no requirement for any net disposal of excess crust by subduction processes, nor is there a need to consider the existence of pre-existing crusts in order to maintain a constant surface area and Earth radius premise.
It is the mechanisms governing change in surface curvature during increase in radius that gives rise to all geological phenomena observed on Earth today: simple joints in folding rocks to complex mountain formation.
Near Earth satellite observations, carried out since the start of the space-age, now show that plasma from the Sun, in the form of magnetically charged electrons, protons and other ions, constantly enters the Earth.
This input of magnetically charged particles may then be playing a major unrecognized role in the elusive search for a viable mechanism accounting for matter increase within the Earth, resulting in an increase in Earth mass and hence radius over time.
The resultant increase in volume of new matter at the core-mantle interface gives rise to swelling of the mantle.
Mantle swell is then transferred to the outer crust as crustal extension which is currently seen and preserved as extension along the mid-ocean-ridge spreading zones within each of the oceans.
Extension within each of the oceans is also accompanied by expulsion of newly formed volcanic lava, water, and atmospheric gases along the full length of each of the mid-ocean-ridge spreading zones.
Below is an image of the proposed development of the Earth’s core, mantle and crust followed by continental break-up and dispersal throughout Earth history, extending in time from the pre-Archaean to the present day.
Earth’s inner geomagnetic dynamo showing possible vortex patterns within the molten core.
The historical development of the theory of Expansion Tectonics began with Dutch map maker Abraham Ortelius in 1596. He suggested the continents once fit together.
- Alfred W. Drayson, in 1859, speculated the Earth had undergone an expansion over time.
- Ivan Yarkovski, in 1888, was the first to postulate a growth of Earth mass.
- Roberto Mantovani, in 1889, published a theory of earth expansion and continental drift.
- Alfred Wegener, in 1915, noted how South America and Africa appeared to have once fit together, suggesting all the continents once fit together as a super-continent, the Pangaean landmass, or Pangaea.
“What Wegener and others failed to recognize was that, as well as fitting the South American and African coastlines together to come up with a reasonably approximate continental fit-together, the remaining Indian, Pacific, and Southern Ocean coastlines can just as easily be fitted together, with similar fossil and geological evidence to support the observations.”3
Klaus Vogel, in the 1980s – 1990s concluded from his modeling studies that:
- At a reduced Earth radius of between 55 to 60 percent of the present radius, the continental outlines can be neatly fitted together to form a closed crust.
- The positions of the different continents with respect to each other remain generally constant, with their separation caused by a radial expansion of the Earth.
- The cause of the movements of continents has resulted from an accelerating increase in Earth radius with time, in accordance with seafloor spreading.
- It is theoretically possible for the continents, without the continental shelves, to fit together on an even smaller Earth globe calculated to be approximately 40 percent of the size of the present Earth.
Modern Scientific Evidence
We will begin by defining some important terms.
- Hadean – began with the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago; ended 4 billion years ago. The planet had just formed and was very hot and chaotic.
- Archean – 4 to 2.5 billion years ago; the Earth’s crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents, yet the heat flow was still nearly 3 times as high as today
- Proterozoic – 2.5 billion years ago to 541 million years ago; there was a transition to an oxygenated environment, several glaciations, and later the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multi-cellular organisms which provide the first obvious fossil evidence of life on Earth
- Phanerozoic – 541 million years ago to the present; abundant animal and plant life has existed.
Eons are thus divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, epochs and ages.
Geologic Time Spiral by USGS
- Crust – outermost solid shell, different to the underlying mantle; 0-60 km (0-37 miles) thick
- Mantle – widest section of Earth; honeycomb structure; approx. 2900 km (1800 miles) thick
- Outer Core – molten liquid metals of iron and nickel
- Inner Core – central portion and hottest portion. Possibly solid or molten iron and nickel; temperatures up to 5500 C (9932 F).
- Lithosphere – continental and seafloor crustal rocks
- Continental crust – carries land
- Seafloor (oceanic) crust – carries water
Mohorovicic discontinuity – (Moho) – the boundary between the base of the continental and seafloor crusts and the mantle; this boundary is defined by a contrast in seismic velocity
Asthenosphere – underlying relatively rigid uppermost part of the mantle
A fundamental understanding of continental and seafloor crusts is necessary to provide a mechanism for crustal modeling back in time and to justify determination of an ancient primordial Earth radius during small Earth modeling studies.
Three dominant rock domains of Continental Crust:
Craton – part of the Earth’s crust that has attained relative crustal stability and the rocks have been little deformed for a prolonged period of time. By definition, cratons must have reached crustal stability by about 2,400 million years ago.
Orogen – refers to a belt of rocks characterized by regional folding, metamorphism, and intrusion of magmatic rocks. A distinct tectonic phase of Earth movement, over a relatively short period of time, first establishes an orogen. It is also possible for an orogen to become re-activated during subsequent tectonic events and the belt normally remains as a permanent zone of relative weakness within the Earth’s crust.
Basin – refers to an area that is underlain by a substantial thickness of sedimentary rocks. The term basin is usually synonymous with the term sedimentary basin and it represents a regional topographical down-warp of the Earth’s surface, generally filled with water.
With the advent of modern geophysical and oceanographic studies of the oceans it is now known that the seafloor crust is, in fact, completely separate and distinct from the continental crust.
Volcanic Seafloor Crust – completely separate and distinct from the continental crust. Modern geophysical and oceanographic studies show that all seafloor crust is younger than 200 million years old and comprises almost entirely of the iron-rich volcanic lava called basalt. This seafloor crust represents cooled and solidified lava extruded from the upper mantle, with nothing to do with the continental crusts.
Sea Floor Spreading
At or near the crest of the mid-ocean-ridges the seafloor crustal lavas were shown to be very young and these lavas become progressively older when moving away from the ridge crests.
The youngest lavas at the ridge crests always have present-day normal magnetic polarity.
Moving away from the ridge crests the stripes of lava parallel to the ridges were shown to have alternated in magnetic polarity from normal to reverse to normal and so on.
This suggested that the Earth’s magnetic field has reversed many times throughout its history.
Magnetic field reversal is commonly accepted by mainstream scientists. “Scientists understand that the Earth’s magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia…Reversals are the rule, not the exception. Earth has settled down in the last 20 million years into a pattern of a pole reversal about every 200,000 to 300,000 years, although it has been more than twice that long since the last reversal.”4
Above is an image of the Geological map of the world.
Each color represents rocks that have been deposited, intruded or extruded during a set interval of geological time.
The colors shown for the continents represent rocks that were formed during the major geological eons and eras, while the striped colors shown for the oceans represent rocks that were formed during the lesser geological periods and epochs.
From an Expansion Tectonic perspective the surface areas of each of the colored stripes can also be measured and from this an estimate of the ancient Earth radius can be made.
Observations from the Geological Map of the World
The pattern of colors representing the ages of the seafloor volcanic lavas confirm that the seafloor lavas are vastly different from the continental crustal rocks. Similarly, the continental rocks, in general, are shown to be more ancient than the seafloor lavas.
The extrusion of volcanic lava along each of the mid-ocean-ridge spreading centers represents quenched and solidified volcanic mantle-derived lava; not drowned continental rocks.
The colored seafloor striping confirms that all of the oceans contain a mid-ocean-ridge—currently centered beneath the present day pink colored stripes—and each ocean is increasing its surface area with time. This increase in surface area is symmetrical about the mid-ocean-ridges within each ocean.
The maximum age of seafloor volcanic lava, located along the continental margins, is early-Jurassic in age—about 170 million years old—which is shown as areas of pale blue striping.
If it were possible to move back in time, each of the colored seafloor stripes shown must be progressively removed in turn. The corresponding edges of each colored stripe must then be moved closer together. That is, the erupted volcanic lava must be progressively returned to the mantle where it originally came from.
When moving back in time, each of the continents must move closer together in strict accordance with the colored striping evidence. This phenomenon can then be used to accurately constrain the location of the various crustal plates during modeling of the ancient continents and oceans back in time.
By measuring the surface area of each colored stripe in turn, this evidence can also be used to investigate any change in seafloor surface area with time, and from this to investigate any changes in Earth radius with time.
Expanding Ocean Model
The above image shows Spherical small Earth models of a Jurassic to present-day Expansion Tectonic Earth showing modeled seafloor crusts. Each small Earth model demonstrates that the seafloor crustal plate assemblage coincides fully with seafloor spreading and geological data and accords with the derived ancient Earth radii.
Expanding Continental Crusts Model
Below is an image of the expanding continental crusts model. The area of each colored stripe or sedimentary basin is simply progressively removed in turn and the remaining crustal plates are re-assembled on predetermined smaller radius Earth models.
This modeling study empirically demonstrates that all continental crusts assemble as a complete Pangaean Earth at approximately 50 percent of the present Earth radius during the late-Permian–around 250 million years ago.
Similarly, by extending this modeling philosophy back in time to the Precambrian times, remnant ancient Proterozoic and Archaean continental crusts are shown to assemble together as a primordial Earth at approximately 27 percent of the present Earth radius during the early-Archaean.
Mathematical modeling of both the seafloor and continental crustal surface area data demonstrates that the Earth is undergoing an exponential increase in surface area and radius, commencing from a primordial Earth of approximately 1,700 kilometers radius during early-Archaean times.
From this, a current rate of increase in Earth radius is calculated to be 22 millimeters per year.
The calculated rate of increase in Earth radius throughout the Archaean to mid-Proterozoic times was of the order of microns per year.
Earth radius then steadily to rapidly increased during the late-Proterozoic times–some 1,000 million years ago–and has continued increasing to the present-day.
Extrapolating this increase to the future demonstrates that expansion to 5 million years in the future is consistent with a continued spreading along all present-day mid-ocean-ridge axes.
Full mapping of the expansion of each ocean, sea and continent can be found at Dr. Maxlow’s website at http://www.expansiontectonics.com/index1.html.
In this article we have discussed Expansion tectonics as related to the Earth, the geometric global grid, and the continual creation of matter.
This theory aligns with the idea that matter is created when Aether is absorbed into the earth from space (in a toroidal fashion) and transformed into new chemical elements. At the center of all life forms there is a black ‘whole’ matter generator. This includes protons, atoms, molecules, biological life forms, planets, suns and galaxies.
However, it is to be noted that it is possible that the Earth is not only growing from the geometric seams, but also expanding and contracting in between as well, adding to the rate of growth or shrinkage. It is a very dynamic system with many forces at play. Yet once again, we see the importance of the underlying geometry of the Earth that guides the growth process, just as the underlying geometry of plants, animals and humans guides the growth process of the plant or animal body as we thoroughly discussed in previous articles.
A further note, this theory matches nicely with ideas of planetary creation espoused by Dr. Harold Aspden, Dr. Paul LaViolette, and Dewey Larson (see Article 92). That is, the Earth’s core could have been ejected from the sun as a very dense disc or ball. If that was the case, the outward density of the core would eventually reach equilibrium with the inward density of the mantle and crust.
Following this theory, all planets may have originally been ejected from their respective Sun and over time have expanded out.
- Oskin, Becky, What is Plate Tectonics? LiveScience, 19 December, 2017, https://www.livescience.com/37706-what-is-plate-tectonics.html
- NASA, 2012: Magnetic Pole Reversal Happens All the (Geologic) Time, 30 November, 2011, https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/2012-poleReversal.html