In this article we will continue our discussion of quantum theory. We will introduce subatomic particle interactions and in the next article we will explore the geometry of subatomic particle interactions.
“In a very real way of speaking, your concept of reality as seen through your physical senses, scientific instruments, or arrived at through deduction, bears little resemblance to the facts – and the facts are hard to explain.”1
The Aether/Vacuum Energy/Quantum Field
Quantum physics created the concept of a ‘quantum field’. This quantum field, although not admitted by mainstream scientists is in all aspects the Aether. We have discussed this in great detail in previous articles of Cosmic Core.
The Aether, or quantum field, is a fundamental physical entity. It is a continuous medium (not a fabric!) which is present everywhere in space.
The Aether carries its mutual interactions in the form of waves. Waves are the result of fluctuations in a fluid-like field.
In essence, the Aether is a continuum which is present everywhere in space and yet in its particle aspect has a discontinuous granular structure.
Particles are merely local condensations of the ‘field’ – concentrations of toroidal flows of energy which come and go.
The ‘field’ or Aether contains the potentiality for all forms of the particle world, and there are a great many of them.
Photons are electromagnetic waves. EM waves are vibrating fields. Therefore, photons are manifestations of EM fields.
Albert Einstein said, “We may therefore regard matter as being constituted by the regions of space in which the field is extremely intense…There is no place in this new kind of physics both for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality.”2
Space-time diagrams (Minkowski Diagrams)
Space-time diagrams, otherwise known as Minkowski diagrams are an important aspect of quantum field theory. They represent the history of a ‘particle’. In other words, they represent particle interactions.
Wikipedia states, “Minkowski diagrams are two-dimensional graphs that depict events as happening in a universe consisting of one space dimension and one time dimension. Unlike a regular distance-time graph, the distance will be displayed on the horizontal axis and time on the vertical axis. Additionally, the time and space units of measurement are chosen in such a way that an object moving at the speed of light is depicted as following a 45° angle to the diagram’s axes.”
Below is an example of a space-time diagram of a photon:
The horizontal direction represents space.
The vertical direction represents time.
The path of the particle is called its ‘world line’. In the diagram above the yellow line is the ‘world line’ of a photon.
For each process, a diagram can be drawn and a definite mathematical expression can be associated giving us the probability for that process to occur.
Space-time diagrams were later pictorially represented and renamed Feynman diagrams in 1949 after Richard Feynman (pictured below).
An example of a Feynman diagram is shown below:
Wikipedia states, “A Feynman diagram is a representation of quantum field theory processes in terms of particle interactions. The particles are represented by the lines of the diagram, which can be squiggly or straight, with an arrow or without, depending on the type of particle. A point where lines connect to other lines is a vertex, and this is where the particles meet and interact: by emitting or absorbing new particles, deflecting one another, or changing type.
Feynman diagrams are often confused with space-time diagrams and bubble chamber images because they all describe particle scattering. Feynman diagrams are graphs that represent the interaction of particles rather than the physical position of the particle during a scattering process.”
More Feynman diagrams:
Both time-space diagrams and Feynman diagrams are incomplete in terms of understanding subatomic particle interactions.
Feynman diagrams have now been replaced by the amplitudehedron. We will discuss this in detail in the next article (Article 124).
Quantum field theory
Quantum field theory constitutes the proper framework for space-time diagrams.
All interactions involve the creation and destruction of particles.
There is a fundamental symmetry between particles and antiparticles – for every particle there exists an antiparticle with equal mass and opposite charge.
This concept was theorized by Paul Dirac before it was proven.
Pairs of electrons and positrons can be created spontaneously by photons, and can be made to turn into photons in the reverse process of annihilation.
There is an unusual aspect related to positrons. They can be interpreted in two ways: as positrons moving forwards in time, or as electrons moving backwards in time!
There is a complete symmetry with regard to the direction of time.
All space-time diagrams may be read in either direction in time.
For every process there is an equivalent process with the direction of time reversed and particles replaced by antiparticles.
Space and time are reciprocal. They are unified. This aligns perfectly with the physics of Dewey B. Larson.
To review Article 122:
Sub-atomic particles were first discovered in the 1930’s. Today we know over 200. Some of these include: electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, antiparticles, pions, muons, kaons, baryons, neutrinos and quarks.
Subatomic particles move at speeds approaching the speed of light.
Since a particle’s mass equals a certain amount of energy it is not seen as a static object, but a dynamic pattern, a process involving energy which manifests itself as the particle’s mass.
Subatomic particles are only further dividable when collided involving high energy in huge particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider.
However, it is to be noted that we cannot divide matter into smaller and smaller pieces – we just create new particles out of the energy involved. This is key! Life forms and matter cannot be broken down into smaller and smaller pieces. It is the wholeness and the myriad processes that make up the wholeness that account for life and matter. Even matter, such as a table, cannot be broken down into smaller and smaller parts and still be a table. It is the entirely of its molecular structure and the processes that occur among the molecules that account for the table being a table. The table consists of ever-changing relationships among its parts. All parts are necessary.
Subatomic particles are destructible and indestructible at the same time.
Matter is both continuous and discontinuous.
Force and matter are different aspects of the same phenomenon.
Most subatomic particles created in collisions live for a very short time – less than a millionth of a second.
They are detected and measured using bubble chambers also known as vapor-trail analysis.
David Wilcock states, “The medium used to detect ‘particles’ is typically a glass chamber that is filled with highly pressurized gas, such as water vapor. The pressure is so high that no further molecules can be forced in, and when a charged ‘particle’ travels through the medium, it creates visible disturbances.”
Matter has appeared as completely mutable (changeable). All particles can be transmuted into other particles. They are created from energy and vanish into energy.
The whole universe appears as a dynamic web of inseparable energy patterns.
All are interconnected, interrelated and independent. They cannot be understood as isolated entities but only as integrated parts of the whole.
Note that these interesting paradoxical properties of matter can easily be explained by understanding that all matter exists in two realms – the realm of ‘existence’ (physical space/time) and the realm of ‘non-existence’ (metaphysical time/space). It is easy to understand then, how matter is continuous and discontinuous, a particle and a wave, destructible and indestructible.
Subatomic Particle Interactions – Supercolliders
Wikipedia tells us that “a particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charge particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Large accelerators are used for basic research in particle physics. The most powerful accelerator currently is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, built by the European collaboration CERN. It is a collider accelerator, which can accelerate two beams of protons to an energy of 6.5 TeV and cause them to collide head-on, creating center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV.”
Below are two examples of vapor-trail analysis from a bubble chamber:
Subatomic Particle Interaction Patterns
All particles of a given kind are completely identical.
They have exactly the same mass, electric charge and other characteristic properties.
All charged particles carry electric charges exactly equal (or opposite) to that of the electron or charges of exactly twice that amount. This means they always take integer values (+/- 1, 2, etc.) or half integer values (+/- ½, 3/2, etc.).
They do not take arbitrary values but are restricted to a limited number which allows arrangement into a few distinct groups or families. This is key!
Quantum numbers reflect the vibration patterns of the electron waves in their atomic orbits.
Most particles spin about an axis like a top.
Spins are restricted to definite values which are integral multiples of some basic unit.
Baryons – spins of ½, 3/2, 5/2…etc.
Mesons – spins of 0, 1, 2…etc.
Subatomic particle interactions show symmetry in four basic ways:
- with respect to displacements in space – they will look the same regardless of location
- with respect to displacements in time – they will occur the same regardless of day or time
- with respect to orientation in space – the total amount of rotation involved is always conserved
- with respect to electric charge – the total charge carried by all particles involved in an interaction remains constant
All particles in a given symmetry pattern have identical quantum numbers, except for isospin and hypercharge which give them their places in the pattern.
Resonance and amplitude of subatomic particle interactions
“In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.”3
Oscillation – repetitive variation of some measure about a point of equilibrium. ‘Vibration’ is a synonym of oscillation.
Amplitude – a measure of a periodic variable’s change over a single period, such as time.
Frequency – the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.
Resonances are extremely short-lived hadron states which are characteristic of all strong interactions. They are formed in hadron collisions and disintegrate almost as soon as they come into being.
Why are short-lived hadron states called resonances?
These states are related to an analogy drawn from the well-known resonance phenomenon in connection with sound vibrations.
“In the case of sound the air in a cavity will in general respond only weakly to a sound wave coming from outside, but will begin to ‘resonate’ or vibrate very strongly, when the sound wave reaches a certain frequency called the resonance frequency. The channel of a hadron reaction can be compared to such a resonant cavity since the energy of the colliding hadron is related to this frequency of the corresponding probability wave.
“When this energy, or frequency, reaches a certain value the channel begins to resonate; the vibrations of the probability wave suddenly become very strong and thus cause a sharp increase in the reaction probability. Most reaction channels have several resonance energies.”4
General Principles used to Unify Subatomic Interaction Patterns
Symmetry (discussed above)
Unitarity: “the outcome of a particular reaction can only be predicted in terms of probabilities and the sum of the probabilities for all possible outcomes must be equal to one.”
One = Unity both metaphysically speaking and in the physics of Dewey B. Larson.
Causality: implies particle interactions “depend in a smooth way on the energies and momenta of the particles involved in a reaction, except for those values at which the creation of new particles becomes possible. At those values, the mathematical structure of the interactions changes abruptly; it encounters a ‘singularity’.
Resonance energies are examples of singularities.
The central aim of particle interaction theory is to derive the singularity structure of all interactions from the general principles. This is key!!!
The amplitudehedron has been found to be the singularity structure of all interactions from the general principles. We will discuss this in the next article.
What is needed is a mathematical formalism able to describe in a dynamic way the great variety of sub-atomic interaction patterns.
These interactions include:
- Their continual transformation into one another.
- Their mutual interaction through the exchange of other particles.
- The formation of ‘bound state’ of two or more hadrons.
- Their decay into various particle combinations.
Hadron reactions represent a flow of energy in which particles are created and dissolved but the energy can only flow through certain ‘channels’.
Compare this idea with Cymatics, discussed in Article 121. The sand particles were only able to flow through certain channels. These channels are the corners and edges of geometry.
Subatomic particle interactions and Cymatics represent the same exact process occurring on different scales from different sources.
Just as we see in Cymcatics, in subatomic particle interactions the ‘channels’ will be found to be the straight lines or lines of action in 3D geometric structures based on the Platonic solids.
Not surprisingly, this mathematical formalism has been found to be geometric in nature. In the next article we will examine the history of the development of the singularity structure of subatomic particle interactions starting with space-time diagrams up to the amplitudehedron.
- Roberts, Jane, Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul, Amber-Allen Publishing, 1972
- Capek, M, The Philosophical Impact of Contemporary Physics, Princeton, N.J. D. Van Nostrand, 1961
- Capra, Fritjof, The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism, Shambhala Publications, Inc, 1975