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With this article we will begin a three-part series on the geometry of galaxies and galactic clusters.  This will complete our assessment of the underlying Aetheric geometric structure of the universe that we are laying out in Cosmic Core.

 

We have examined the geometry found at all possible scales that we are able to assess.  This includes the geometry of Aether units, subatomic particle interactions, the photon, sound & music, the atomic structure, molecular structure, minerals, water, ice, DNA, bacteria, viruses, plankton, fungi, plants, insects, animals, the human body, planets, and suns.

We will begin the last section now, observing the geometry of individual galaxies.

Gyorgy Doczi reminds us that “The unity within the diversities of organic and inorganic patterns is also seen in the spiral patterns of certain galaxies which echo on a cosmic scale the minute dinergic spiral patterns of shells and flowers. ”

 

Galactic Geometry Fields

We have repeatedly seen that the ‘heartbeat of the universe’ results in vibrations of standing waves of geometry.  These standing waves are invisible Aetheric geometric force fields that are embedded within sound frequencies.

This ‘heartbeat’ is the result of the continual oscillation of waves from the invisible metaphysical reality of time/space to the visible physical reality of space/time.

At the most profound and mysterious level these oscillations result from movements of consciousness.  These movements form waves and wave packets of infinitely varying complexity.  These waves pulse between these two realities due to the two forces of the universe we have discussed in depth in previous articles.  These are the inward centripetal flow of Aether (the force of gravity) and the outward centrifugal flow of Aether (electromagnetism).

 

This inward and outward spiraling flow of Aether creates interference patterns.  These interference patterns result in standing waves.  The standing waves are geometric in nature and can best be visualized by studying Cymatics.  It is important to remember that geometry is embedded within reality just as harmonics are embedded with a single note.  Studying Cymatics can give us astonishing visuals as to the existence of the invisible Aetheric geometric patterns that are the unseen bedrock of reality.  In Cymatics, various waves (frequencies, wavelengths, amplitudes & harmonics) will automatically produce various geometries.  As the frequency increases the geometry becomes more complex.  What this means is that geometry is an inherent part of all waves.  This is a universal fact of reality.  Cymatics help us see what we usually do not see.

Cymatics Patterns: Sound (Vibration) creates geometry.

 

As these geometric standing waves are formed, according to the unique packet of waves that started the oscillation, electromagnetic units begin to coalesce upon these geometric aetheric flow lines.  As it grows in intensity, more units coalesce as photons.  These photons then coalesce as subatomic particles, then atoms, molecules and finally, matter.

Due to the fact that matter is a direct result of the two spiraling forces of the universe (centripetal gravity and centrifugal electromagnetism) we see how all matter is organized along lines of spirals.

That is, photons spiraling and looping in certain ways form specific subatomic particles.  Atoms are formed from certain Platonic solid arrangements that spiral or rotate to give the atoms form and function.  DNA is a spiral.  The golden ratio and ratio of the square roots of 2, 3 & 5 (seen commonly as a spiral) is the form that many, many life forms take in one way or another.  There is no end to the spiraling action we see in reality, as it is a direct result of the spiraling action from time/space to space/time that every single thing in reality continually does, regardless of scale.  Every photon oscillates, every electron does, every atom, molecule…etc.  All is motion.

This process is true at all scales from small to large.  It is fractal-holographic in nature.

As we have repeatedly said, this is true for the subatomic, atomic, mineral, plant, animal, human, planet, star, galaxy and universe.

 

In the case of galaxies, of which we are studying here, the standing wave patterns of geometry sit still in the ‘aether’ (remember, it is a dynamic steady-state universe).

The geometry fits within the galactic halo – the halo acts a spherical torus that surrounds the geometry, just as a sphere contains the Platonic solids.

Recall how important the torus is on all scales.  The torus is simply the spiraling flow of inwards/outwards, centripetal/centrifugal, time/space/space/time or gravity/electromagnetism.

The torus is a result of oscillating and rotating Platonic solid geometries, as present in potentiation – that is all the geometries are potentially there.  Individual geometries or specific complexes of geometries are activated by the wave packets that result from fluctuations of consciousness.

The regular polygons and five Platonic solids are the underlying key to understanding the creation, form, function and evolution of all in reality.

 

Platonic Solids

  

 

         

Remember, Spheres of energy have been discovered surrounding galaxies – these are galactic halos.

A galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component.  Several distinct components of galaxies comprise the halo:

  • the stellar halo
  • the galactic corona (hot gas, i.e. a plasma)
  • the  dark matter halo (this is ‘theorized’ by mainstream scientists.  In Cosmic Core we know that ‘dark matter’ refers to the Aether.

The geometric force fields remain still while the stars of the galaxy move through them.

They appear to be counter-rotating – though one geometry is sitting still while the other geometry moves through it.

 

 

Galaxy Morphology

There are three major types of galaxies: Spiral, Elliptical and Irregular.  Lenticular and ring galaxies are in-between structures of these classifications.

 

Spiral

  • These have a bulge, disc and halo with approximate logarithmic spirals
  • “The spiral arms are thought to be areas of high-density matter, or ‘density-waves.’ There are two types:

Ordinary (S)

  • The arms originate directly from the nucleus

Messier 101

Barred (SB)

  • A bar of material runs through the nucleus that the arms merge from

 

Lenticular

  • Intermediate type of galaxy between elliptical and true spiral; they have a bulge and a thin disk but no spiral structure

NGC 4866

 

Ring

  • These have a ‘ring-like’ structure and interstellar medium surrounding a bare core.

Hoag’s Object

Elliptical (E)

  • Spheroid or elongated sphere; oval-shaped discs

IC 2006

  • Shell – type of elliptical galaxy where stars in the galaxy’s halo are arranged in concentric shells

NGC 3923

Irregular

  • These have no regular or symmetrical structure; There are two types
    • Irr-I – these have some structure but do not align with other Hubble classification labels

NGC 1427A

 

  • Irr-II – these have no structure, such as the Magellanic Clouds

NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

 

 

Galactic Geometry

Now we will look at individual galaxies as pointed out by researcher and author David Wilcock.

As the gas, dust and stars in the galaxy move through the corners of the geometry they speed up and make a sharper turn – an angular turn – as they spin through the geometry.

This is illustrated comprehensively in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog which shows galaxies in their x-ray patterns.  This catalog contains information on 1246 individual galaxies, updated in 1981.

 

As it turns out, most galaxies have sharper, straight-line turns and not smooth curves.

Often we can’t see the geometry because the galaxies are too bright – we have to view them in their x-ray pattern.

Most commonly seen are pentagons and hexagons, but squares and triangles are also seen.

These are cross-sections of Platonic solid geometry.

 

Following are the cross-section polygons of some common polyhedra:

Polyhedra Cross-section Polygon
Cube & Octahedron – Platonic Square
Tetrahedron – Platonic Equilateral Triangle
Dodecahedron – Platonic Pentagon
Star tetrahedron – Compound Hexagon
Icosahedron – Platonic Decagon
Rhombic dodecahedron – Catalan Hexagon
Cuboctahedron – Archimedean Hexagon

 

The dodecahedron is unique: One can intersect a dodecahedron with a plane and obtain an equilateral triangle, a square, a regular pentagon, a regular hexagon, and a regular decagon.

Credit: Math Overflow

 

 

Please note that due to the complex variety of forces acting on galaxies in space the geometry is not perfect.  Cross-sections can result in tilted, flattened or expanded geometry, or sometimes geometry that appears to be a cross between different polygons such as the pentagon and hexagon.

 

Now we will look at specific examples beginning with two square galaxies, the Red Square Nebula and the Red Rectangle.

Note how growth patterns expand out from the center and occur along geometric lines.  Also, gas and dust coalesce upon these same geometric lines.

Figure 4-11b:MWC 922: The Red Square Nebula credit(Tuthill & Lloyd, 2007); http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap070416.html.

Figure 4-11c: The Red Rectangle, HD 44179 Image credit: H. Van Winckel (KULeuven), M. Cohen (UC Berkely), H. Bond (STScI), T. Gull (GSFC), ESA, NASA; http://www.nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/detail/NVA2~4~4~5326~105852: Rungs-of-the-Red-Rectangle.

 

There are many other examples that show geometric straight-line galaxies which include squares, rectangles, pentagons and hexagons.

“Spiral galaxies defy the law of gravity and kinetic motion, they are hexagonal in shape.”1

 

 

Other Examples:

We can thank NASA for the following fine images.

 

  • MyCn 18 – “Engraved Hourglass Nebula”
    • Planetary nebula in Musca constellation; beautiful nebula looks like a Vesica Piscis

 

  • LEDA 074886
    • dwarf galaxy – appears to be rectangular from the side – Eridanus constellation; a thin disc spins at the center at 33 km/s

 

  • NGC 1407
    • Elliptical galaxy in Eridanus; spherical shape; evidence of recurrent radio outburst.

 

  • NGC 6822
    • Barnard’s Galaxy in Sagittarius; rectangular shaped

 

  • NGC 3938
    • Hexagonal/Pentagon bending of arms

 

  • NGC 3628
    • Hamburger galaxy; unbarred spiral galaxy in the constellation Leo; long slender rectangle

 

  • NGC 1300
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Eridanus; 110,000 light-years across; “the nucleus shows a ‘grand-design’ spiral structure that is about 3300 light-years long. Only galaxies with large-scale bars appear to have these grand-design inner disks – a spiral within a spiral.”

 

  • NGC 524
    • The center of this galaxy shows a beautiful ‘grand-design’ spiral structure

 

  • NGC 3344
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Leo Minor; hexagonal bending in arms

 

  • NGC 2903
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Leo; “has a very high speed of creating new stars in the central region”; hexagonal geometric bending of arms seen at an angle

 

  • NGC 6776
    • Called “The Pentagon”; “The CCD images reveal hexagonal shaped isophotes. Such isophotes are not predicted by current theoretical models of spheroidal systems.  The number of sides to the isophotes in NGC 6776 seems theoretically difficult to explain in terms of a system in equilibrium.” 2
    • Note: isophote is defined as “a curve on a chart joining points of equal light intensity from a given source.
    • Difficult to find an adequate image of this one.

 

  • NGC 6946 – “The Fireworks Galaxy”
    • Intermediate spiral galaxy with small bright nucleus; between Cepheus and Cygnus in Virgo Supercluster; clear hexagonal/pentagonal bending of the arms

 

  • NGC 4365
    • “The image of this E3 galaxy reveals boxy, slightly hexagonal isophotes.” (C31 NGC 4365 = VCC 0731)

 

  • NGC 7020
    • Barred lenticular galaxy in Pavo constellation
    • Wikipedia states, “NGC has a large outer ring surrounding a bright inner hexagonal zone containing an inner ring and possibly a bar.”
    • “Buta (1991) notes that some are more rectangular or even hexagonal; the best example of hexagonal isophotes is for the weakly barred galaxy NGC 7020.”3

 

  • NGC 1232
    • Intermediate spiral galaxy in Eridanus; very clear pentagonal bending of the arms.
    • Wikipedia states, “Not visible is matter of unknown form called dark matter, needed to explain the motions of the visible material in the outer galaxy.”! And “unusual bending in the spiral arms.”

 

  • NGC 3646
    • Annular galaxy in constellation Leo; clear hexagonal shape and bending of arms

 

  • NGC 23
    • Spiral galaxy in Pegasus constellation; clear pentagonal/hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 5806
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Virgo constellation; clear hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 1169
    • Intermediate barred spiral galaxy in Perseus constellation; hexagonal bending of arms present

 

  • NGC 3992 (Messier 109)
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Ursa Major; very clear hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 7217
    • Unbarred spiral galaxy in Pegasus constellation; spherical core with pentagonal halo and arms
    • Resemblance to Paul Gustave Dore’s illustration of Dante’s Paradiso

 

  • NGC 3351(Messier 95)
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Leo; interesting eye-shaped hexagonal structure

 

  • NGC 3627 (Messier 66)
    • Intermediate spiral galaxy in Leo; “striking dust lanes and bright star clusters along sweeping spiral arms”; “unusual spiral arm and dust lane structures”; clear bending of arms present

 

  • NGC 5005
    • Inclined spiral galaxy in Canes Venatici constellation; pentagonal or hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 613
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Sculptor constellation; interesting bending of arms present

 

  • NGC 4725
    • Intermediate barred spiral galaxy in Coma Berenices constellation; interesting hexagonal bending present within the spiraling structure

 

  • NGC 3504
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Leo Minor; strange geometric bending present

 

  • NGC 6753
    • Unbarred spiral galaxy in Pavo constellation; hexagonal bending present

 

  • Sextans A
    • Tiny dwarf irregular galaxy; square-shaped structure
    • Wikipedia states, “Sextans A has a peculiar square shape. Massive short-lived stars exploded in supernovae that caused more star formation, triggering yet more supernovae, ultimately resulting in an expanding shell.  Young blue stars now highlight areas and shell edges high in current star formation, which from the perspective of observers on Earth appears roughly square.”

 

  • NGC 4414

 

  • NGC 2082

 

  • NGC 3059
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Carina constellation; “irregularly round” square-shaped structure

 

  • NGC 1058
    • Seyfert Type 2 galaxy in Perseus constellation; roughly square/hexagonal shape

 

  • NGC 2763
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Hydra constellation; hexagonal bending and shape present

 

  • NGC 2525
    • Hexagonal/pentagonal bending of arms present

 

  • NGC 4304
    • Galaxy in Hydra constellation; hexagonal shape

 

  • NGC 5676
    • Asymmetric unbarred spiral galaxy in Bootes constellation; clear hexagonal shape

 

  • NGC 2223
    • Barred spiral galaxy in Canis Major constellation; very clear hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 157
    • Spiral galaxy in Cetus constellation; pentagonal structure

 

  • NGC 628 (Messier 74)
    • Spiral constellation in Pisces; clear hexagonal bending of arms and hexagonal structure

 

  • NGC 3031 (Messier 81)
    • Bode’s Galaxy: spiral galaxy in Ursa Major; very clear hexagonal/pentagonal bending and structure

 

  • NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)
    • Galaxy in Centaurus constellation; N-S jets ejecting from the center; an oblong toroidal shape

 

  • NGC 5194 (Messier 51)
    • The Whirlpool Galaxy in Canes Venatici constellation; very clear pentagonal bending and structure

 

  • NGC 4303 (Messier 61)
    • Intermediate barred spiral galaxy in Virgo constellation; very clear hexagonal/pentagonal bending and structure

 

  • UGC 12158
    • Sb-type barred spiral galaxy in Pegasus constellation; very clear hexagonal/pentagonal bending and structure

 

  • NGC 5457 (Messier 101)
    • Pinwheel Galaxy in Ursa Major constellation; clear hexagonal/pentagonal bending of arms

 

  • NGC 7252
    • Peculiar galaxy in Aquarius constellation; “Atoms for Peace galaxy, a nickname which comes from its loop-like structure, made of stars, that resembles a diagram of an electron orbiting an atomic nucleus.”

 

  • Orion Trapezium Cluster
    • Theta Orionis – open tight cluster of stars in the heart of the Orion nebula; forms geometric motion patterns over their last 15 years of movements showing they interact and were born together

 

  • NGC 3808 (Arp 87)
    • Two interacting galaxies in the Leo constellation
    • NGC 3808A shows clear hexagonal bending of arms

 

  • Arp 273 (UGC 18180 & UGC 1813)
    • Interacting galaxies that look like a rose

 

  • Double Helix Nebula
    • Shaped like a DNA double helix in the constellation Ophiuchus, near the center of our galaxy; 80 light-years long; 300 light-years from the center of the galaxy

 

  • NGC 7293
    • The Helix Nebula – large planetary nebula in Aquarius constellation

 

  • NGC 3912
    • Pentagonal shape and bending of arms

 

  • NGC 1291
    • Ringed Galaxy looks like a cosmic eye; hexagonal bending of outer arms can be seen

 

  • NGC 6543
    • Cat’s Eye Nebula; concentric outer shells; “the formation of the beutiufl, more complex inner structures is not well understood.”

 

  • NGC 6720 (Messier 57)
    • The Ring Nebula in Lyra constellation resembles an eye

 

  • NGC 6853 (Messier 27)
    • The Dumbbell or Apple Core Nebula in Vulpecula constellation; interesting 4-pointed geometric cross through the center

 

  • NGC 2936, 2937 & 2936
    • The Porpoise Galaxy resembles a jumping porpoise

 

  • Sharpless 2-106
    • Bipolar star-forming region resembles a soaring Angel

 

  • NGC 6302
    • Butterfly Nebula

 

  • Barnard 33
    • Horsehead Nebula

 

  • Messier 104
    • The Sombrero Galaxy

 

  • Messier 29
    • Twin Jet Nebula

 

  • IRAS 20324+4057
    • Protostar in early formation that resembles a caterpillar

 

  • NGC 2392
    • Eskimo Nebula in Gemini constellation

 

  • NGC 6611 (Messier 16)
    • Eagle Nebula in Serpens constellation

 

  • Pillars of Creation in Eagle Nebula

 

  • Westerhout 5
    • “Soul Nebula” in Cassiopeia

  • Eastern neighbor of IC 1805, the “Heart Nebula”. The who are often mentioned together as the “Heart and Soul.”

 

  • IC 1805 – “Heart Nebula”
    • Located in Perseus arm of the galaxy in Cassiopeia

 

  • NGC 2818

 

  • 30 Doradus
    • Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud

 

  • NGC 1952
    • “Crab Nebula” in Taurus constellation

 

  • The ‘Eyes’ of the Universe

 

 

“Corrugated Velocity Patterns” in Spiral Galaxies – September 2015

Now we will look at a research paper from September 2015 by M. Carmen Sanchez-Gil, Emilio J. Alfaro and Enrique Perez.4

“Large observational surveys of spiral galaxies have revealed that their stellar discs are often not flat but rather show a perturbed vertical structure.”5

This perturbed vertical structure is the corrugated velocity patterns within galactic arms.  This means the speed or velocity of the spinning galaxy itself goes up and down in different places.

Higher speeds are rising vertically away from the galaxy.

This corrugated structure resembles the pattern of concentric circles observed on a pond after dropping a rock.  Once again, this makes much more sense when you remember space/time itself is a fluid-like Aether.

 

These scientists noticed there are strange geometric anomalies at certain phase angles.

Geometric force fields cause the sudden changes in velocity at the corners of these geometric patterns – on the corners there are vertical chimneys rising up where the gas, dust and stars move faster.

They point out two examples galaxies NCG 1058 and NCG 278.

 

NCG 1058 is a galaxy that is formed on cube geometry that is pushing galactic material in the arms into a roughly square pattern.

This galaxy cuts through the center of a cube or octahedron– this is why we see it as a square.  The galactic disc cuts through the center of the geometry.

Remember, a square represents the cross-section of a cube or octahedron.

The X drawn on top of the galaxy are gases that are rising straight up perpendicular to the surface like a chimney.  It shows particle flow along vertical lines.

Scientists don’t expect to see vertical movement, only horizontal movement along the spiraling arms.

 

NCG 278 has a hexagonal geometry, shown below.

This galaxy cuts through the center cross-section of a star tetrahedron or cuboctahedron.  This is why we see it as a hexagon.  The galactic disc cuts through the center of the Platonic solid geometry.

Here you see an upward movement of galactic dust (the X) in a chimney type pattern once again.

 

 

Spiral Galaxy Formation

About 70% of galaxies in the modern seen universe display spiral arms.

How spiral galaxies form is a controversial and unresolved issue in mainstream science.

Conrad Ranzan writes, “Within an expanding universe (even an accelerating expanding universe) ellipticity cannot be explained…According to Andrey Kravtsov, a professor in astronomy & astrophysics at the University of Chicago, the formation of elliptical galaxies (as well as spirals) is one of the biggest remaining questions in astrophysics.”

Physical evidence shows a spiral structure in many galaxies.  Furthermore, the stars closer to the center orbit much faster than stars near the edge of the galaxy.

“Thus, the ‘nice’ spiral structure evident in these galaxies should not exist after one or two rotations – a period of a few hundred million years.  This implies that something is not as it seems.  Either there is some sort of matter that is unaccounted for, or the galaxy has not been around long enough to lose its structure.”6

Mainstream scientists claim the missing matter is ‘dark matter’ even though scientists have been so far unable to detect dark matter using any direct methods, and have only been able to hypothesize what kind of matter it might be.

We discussed this many times in Cosmic Core.  Putting the existence of an Aether back into the equations solves all these problems and does not need an ad hoc concept like ‘dark matter’ to do so.

 

We will now briefly describe Dewey Larson’s explanation of the formation of spiral galaxies.

“Inasmuch as the individual units in the galaxy are independent and widely separated the aggregate has the general characteristics of a fluid.”

Recall here that the Aether is fluid-like in its characteristics and fluid dynamics is the key to understand the formation of matter in the Aether.

“A spiral structure in a rotating fluid is not unusual; on the contrary a striated or laminar structure is almost always found in a rapidly moving heterogeneous fluid, whether the motion is rotational or translational.  (Coffee-cup example – put an outlet hole in the bottom of the cup and the resulting structure on the surface of the water is practically a picture of the galactic spiral.)

The growth of the galaxy has a tendency to accentuate the spiral structure; the rotating fluid experiment shows that the spiral will develop in any event when the necessary velocity is attained.

The spiral is dynamically stable – from all indications the spiral structure could persist indefinitely if the rotational velocity remained constant.

However, the rotational velocity of the galaxies does not remain constant.

The impact of the incoming particles or aggregates is therefore asymmetric and the result is an increase in rotational velocity with the age of the structure.”7

 

Larson is essentially saying that there must a fluid-like Aether.  Space/time itself is a fluid-like Aether.  It is natural for aggregates in a fluid to form a spiral.  The hole in the bottom of the coffee cup, in the example he used, is a symbol for the singularity point or ‘black whole’ – the entrance/exit point from time/space to space/time that exists in the center of all matter/mass from small to large.  The ‘hole’ is the center of the torus.  It is the black ‘whole’.  The galactic halo is the sphere surrounding the galaxy – the ‘white hole’.

Without the inclusion of the Aether into physics, none of this would make sense.  With the Aether, these are fairly easy concepts to grasp.

Larson is also saying that as galaxies age, they increase in rotational velocity due to incoming particles or aggregates.

Conrad Ranzan discusses the formation of spiral galaxies in clear detail in his paper, Ellipticity, Its Origin and Progression in Comoving Galaxies.8  In this paper the formation of spiral galaxies goes back to the cellular structure of the universe.  On a galactic clustering level the ‘cells’ are rhombic dodecahedra.  On a solar scale, according to Dr. Aspden’s work, the ‘cells’ are cubes.

We will discuss this in more detail in the next article.

 

 

Conclusion

We have now seen how individual galaxies grow and move along geometric force field lines.  This is the same type of geometry we see from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, plant, animal and planet.  It always goes back to the Platonic solids.  This cannot be stressed enough.

 

  1. http://creation-arts.com/2017/02/spiral-galaxies-defy-the-law-of-gravity-and-kinetic-motion-and-have-a-hexagonal-structure/
  2. Sansom, A.E., Reid, I.N., & Boisson C., Bizarre Galaxy Shapes – NGC 6776, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 19, p. 664, 1987, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1987BAAS…19..644S
  3. Sellwood, J.A., and Wilkinson, A., Dynamics of Barred Galaxies, Reports on Progress in Physics 56, 1993, arXiv:astro-ph/0608665v1, 30 August 2006
  4. https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.07094
  5. White, Simon, Warps and waves in fully cosmological models of galactic discs, 1 October 2016, https://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/381461/hl201610
  6. http://apps.usd.edu/esci/creation/age/content/creationist_clocks/spiral_galaxies.html
  7. Larson, Dewey B, The Structure of the Physical Universe, 1959 http://www.reciprocalsystem.com/spu/spu36.htm
  8. Ranzan, Conrad, Ellipticity, Its Origin and Progression in Comoving Galaxies, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 23 April 2015, doi: 11648/j.ajaa.201503302.11  http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajaa

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