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In this article we will continue our discussion of the geometric shape of the Aether – the fluid-like medium of space and time.  In the last article we discussed the work of Buckminster Fuller and Synergetics, focusing on the vector equilibrium, or cuboctahedron, as the ground state geometry of the Aether, and the geometric structure of subquantum Aether units.  In this article we will expand this view to the macrocosmic scale and see, through the work of Conrad Ranzan and the Dynamic Steady State Universe (DSSU) how the cosmic cellular structure is composed of two components: the rhombic dodecahedron, which is the dual of the cuboctahedron; and cosmic gravitational cells composed of tessellating octahedra and tetrahedra.

“As above, so below.”



Space has Shape

“Space is not a passive vacuum, but has properties that impose powerful constraints on any structure that inhabit it.  These constraints are independent of specific interactive forces, hence geometrical in nature.”1


“Structuring in nature occurs automatically…Systems automatically find comfortable arrangements, which are necessarily a result of the balance between specific forces and inherent spatial properties.”2

This self-structuring occurs according to the path of least resistance, or according to the ‘requirements of minimum energy’.

“Nature exhibits a fundamental drive toward equilibrium…Nature’s tendency to seek equilibrium is a spontaneous reaction; it is the path of least resistance.  Forces continue to push or pull until counterbalanced, and in the absence of other influences, symmetrical considerations dominate.  In short, space shapes all that inhabits it.”3


“The idea that space has shape is profoundly reorienting; we are so used to conceiving of space as passive emptiness on which we impose desired configurations that an entirely new perception cannot be adopted overnight. Nonetheless, upon further study, this premise begins to feel quite comfortable and necessary—an all-embracing somethingness influencing structural phenomena.”4

Space is NOT passive emptiness where we can impose any desired configuration on it. “Space has shape – all structures are formed according to spatial symmetries and constraints. It turns out that the number of symmetrical arrangements allowed by space is surprisingly limited; perpetual (synergetic) interaction of relatively few patterns accounts for the seemingly endless variety of form.”5

Remember, “Structure is ‘a complex of events interacting to form a stable pattern.’  The pattern consists of action, not things.  There is nothing ‘solid’ about structure.”6

Furthermore, “The shape of space is fundamental to the events of nature.”7



Large-Scale Structure of the Cosmos

In a 1978 issue of Scientific American it read, “It is possible, indeed likely, that there are large-scale structures that play an essential role in determining the nature of the universe.  With recent measurements of the large-scale clustering of galaxies and the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation we may be just beginning to detect that structure.”8

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation axis of hot and cold spots.


The above image can be wrapped onto a sphere as seen above.


Once the first image is wrapped onto a sphere, the hot and cold spots line up as a spherical octahedron.   There are two hot spots and two cold spots along the equator, and one spot at each of the poles.  These six spots line up with the six vertices of an octahedron.


In a 1983 issue of the Italian Institute of Physics publication Lettere al Nuovo Cimento a paper was published entitled Planar Boundaries of the Space-Time Lattice.

The summary read as follows: “Having regard to the developing interest in a lattice-structured vacuum in interpreting the structure of particles, an aspect of the electrically structured lattice model of the vacuum is discussed in relation to electric-field energy. It is shown that a necessary condition is that the lattice should have planar boundaries. This implies a domain structure somewhat analogous to that found in ferromagnetic materials. Modern physical theory is tending to regard the vacuum medium as having structure somewhat analogous to that of crystalline materials.”9


Crystals (crystalline materials) form according to Platonic solids.

Crystal growth occurs according to the structure of Platonic solids.  Credit: Drunvalo Melchizadek


Boracite (rhombic dodecahedron), fluorite (cubic) and diamond (octahedral)


According to the physics of Dr. Harold Aspden, the structure of the Aether behaves as fluid or liquid crystals.

Liquid crystals are defined as matter that is “in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.  For instance, a liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way.”

This accounts for the fluid-like flowing properties of the Aether, and its automatic arrangement into crystalline or geometric structures.

This liquid crystal property of the Aether accounts for the flow process of Aether and the simultaneous fractal-holographic geometric structure process of the Aether.  The flow process creates the geometry and the geometry creates the flow process.  It is a continuous feedback system based on consciousness.



A Recap of the Master Plan of the Universe – DSSU

Visit Conrad Ranzan’s website for more information:

There is a space medium that is a non-mass, non-energy Aether with axiomatic (self-evident; unquestionable) properties:

  • Aether expansion process (electromagnetic radiation)
  • Aether contraction process (gravity)
  • includes excitation-annihilation by matter
  • includes self-dissipation by secondary gravity
  • Multi-faceted mass and energy formation process
  • Terminal matter annihilation process


Expansion and contraction form one balanced system.

Matter-formation and destruction form another balanced system.

These systems will be discussed in detail in Articles 115-118 and 124-128.


What happens when there are two opposing dynamic effects in a homogeneous environment? 10

The formation of cells.


A fluid undergoing both heating and cooling produces thermal convection cells.  The cells do not collapse.

Thermal convection cells: Standing waves of geometry held in place by two opposing pressures.  In this case, heating and cooling.


Expansion tendency of gas pressure versus the contraction tendency of surface tension leads to soap bubbles.


Freeze-thaw cycles produce polygonal terrain seen across the world.


Atomic forces vs. macro stress transform amorphous ice into crystalline candled ice.


We should therefore expect that the dual dynamic processes of space-medium expansion and contraction will likewise involve a cell structure.11



The Physics of Dewey B Larson backs up this idea of the Large-scale Structure of the Universe.

Local Space Expansion

Every location in the universe is moving outward from every other location at unit velocity because of the space-time progression resulting from the equivalence of the basic units of space and time.


Local Space Contraction

Simultaneously all material atoms are moving in the opposite direction, inward toward each other, because of their rotational motion. (Gravitation)


These motions control the large-scale aspects of the material universe.

The large-scale structure of the Universe: tessellating rhombic dodecahedral cosmic cells.  Galaxies and galactic clusters form along the lines of force.  Credit: Conrad Ranzan



The Cosmic Cellular Structure

There are three ways in which a volume can be divided into ordered polyhedral cells using identical units and no gaps between cells.  That is, there are only three polyhedra that tessellate.12

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


  • hexahedra (cube) – unstable when subjected to forces involved


  • truncated octahedra – surface-to-volume ratio 5.315
    • surface tension cells, striving to maintain their volume and surface area take this shape


  • rhombic dodecahedra – surface-to-volume ratio 5.345
    • negative pressure cells, striving to maximize their volume and surface area take this shape
    • cosmic cells are negative pressure cells – negative pressure is the manifestation of the process of aether expansion
    • note, the rhombic dodecahedron is the dual of the cuboctahedron (vector equilibrium). These two solids play an extremely important role as the ‘shape of space’ on the micro and macro scales.



Voronoi cells

“In mathematics, a Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on distance to points in a specific subset of the plane. That set of points (called seeds, sites, or generators) is specified beforehand, and for each seed there is a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than to any other. These regions are called Voronoi cells.”13



Geometric Centers of Expansion (GC)14

The assumption is that all the Geometric Centers of Expansion (GC) have the same capacity for repulsion and are free to move about.

One of the distributions of GCs reveals a square cell and the other, a hexagonal Voronoi cell.


Intuitively we know that the hexagonal pattern will be the natural outcome of the repulsive force.

With the hexagonal pattern, the GCs fulfill their goal of maximizing distance which increases by a 1.075 factor without any change in the total area of its domain.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


By using Voronoi cells with the rhombic dodecahedral shape instead of the hexagonal shape, the distance between geometric centers is greater by a substantial 12.25 %.


It appears that our Universe is structured as Voronoi cells and the shape of the structures is predicted to be dodecahedral.15

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


“Now the the Voronoi cell is a polyhedron.  Astronomers have recently discovered that the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe resembles a network of such polyhedra. Most galactic clusters seem to be located on the boundaries of neighboring Voronoi cells. This pattern has been called the Voronoi foam model of the universe because it looks somewhat like a giant bubble bath.”16

The large-scale octahedral structure of the Universe.  Galactic Clusters align along the lines of force.  Credit: Battaner & Florido


“In the 1980s it was discovered the clusters of galaxies are organized into giant bubbles measuring some 300 million light-years in diameter…And preliminary research indicates that the bubbles do indeed represent the top level of structure.”17

These bubbles are the “newly discovered lobes [that] stretch tens of thousands of light-years above and below the Milky Way’s disk” that are discussed in Scientific American in 2014.18

Access article here:  and here:



Lambda and Gravity

Recall that Lambda refers to the cosmological constant, the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

Lambda “was originally introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917 as an addition to his theory of general relativity to ‘hold back gravity’ and achieve a static universe, which was the accepted view at the time.”19  Today, in mainstream physics it refers to ‘dark energy’ which is still, essentially, the force of anti-gravity.  That is, the force that allows the planets to stay in orbit and not crash into the sun, or the force that allows the electrons to stay in orbit and not crash into the atomic nucleus.

“On the largest structural scale Lambda manifests itself as the interior void of a bubble-like cosmic cell.  On the grandest scale of all, Lambda (in conjunction with contractile gravity) manifests itself as the Cellular Universe.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Space expansion (generic Lambda) acts as a repulsion force that strives to maximize the distance between centers of expansion.  These geometric centers represent the centers of the voids from which space expands.  And they act like centers of anti-gravity, from which precipitating matter is conveyed outward.

As the space inside the cells expands, star clusters and galaxies and other matter become concentrated along the common Voronoi boundaries.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Lambda is on the inside; gravity (and mass) is on the outside!  Gravity prevents Lambda from enlarging the cosmic cells; while Lambda prevents gravity from collapsing the cells.”20

In other words, Lambda is nothing more than the opposing force of gravity – the outward flowing force of electromagnetic radiation.



The Cells Do Not Expand

Note – “It is not a universe where cells are seeded and then grow to maturity – it is a universe in which cells are merely sustained.

The DSSU cells simply exist as timeless patterns and are maintained by perpetual steady-state processes.

The cells do not expand – they are prevented from expanding by a self-balancing mechanism.”21

The Universe is a tessellation of Voronoi cells in the shape of dodecahedra.  This has been long predicted by Conrad Ranzan’s DSSU.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan



Large Scale Galaxy Structure

“Clusters tend to lie close to one another…and the voids are evidently an integral part of the process of clustering and superclustering.”22

“Since expansion is radial [centrifugal], matter will comove with space in an explosion-like pattern. In effect, matter will free-fall towards the outer boundaries and into the interface region, a region of aggregation. Each cosmic cell, in this manner, is accreting the material not only from its own interior but also that from the twelve (eighteen, more correctly) surrounding neighboring units.”23

Credit: Conrad Ranzan



“Any galaxy cluster that astronomers term “filamentous” is the tracing of one or another of such boundary lines or edges.

Sheets of galaxies, filamentous clusters, dense concentrations at nodes, and large voids are all features predicted by DSSU theory.  The observational evidence is an overwhelming affirmation.”24


Astronomer Jaan Einasto had found that the large scale organization of galaxies does have a net-like cellular structure with interconnected strings of galaxies surrounding empty regions.  His research “suggests that there exists a preferred scale of ~ 130 h-1 Megaparsec in the Universe, and possibly also some regularity in the distribution of the supercluster-void network.”25

(Note – there are 3.3 light-years to a parsec.  A megaparsec (Mpc) is one million parsecs.)


Laird Thompson and Stephen Gregory found that galaxies were never isolated but appeared to be joined to larger structures in chains or filaments with empty regions in between.26


Astonomers Eduardo Battaner and Estrella Florido found extensive evidence of geometric structure appearing in the universe in 1997.27

The octahedral geometric structure of the Universe.  Credit: Battaner & Florido


Battaner and Florido proposed the large-scale structure of the universe is caused by magnetic fields.  We recognize now that it is caused by fluid dynamics of the Aether.

“Preexisting magnetic fields are able to produce anisotropic density inhomogeneities (not uniform) in the photon fluid and local metric perturbations.  In particular, they are able to produce filamentary structures in the distribution of the energy density.

The filament network, if magnetic in origin, must be subject to some magnetic restrictions. The simplest lattice matching these restrictions is an “egg-carton” network, formed by octahedra joining at their vertexes.  This “egg carton” universe would have larger amounts of matter along the edges of the octahedra, which would be the sites of the superclusters. Outside the filaments there would be large voids, devoid not only of baryons but also of magnetic fields.  Magnetic lines would be concentrated in the filaments, with their directions being coincident with those of the filaments.”

The “egg-carton” network of the universe that Battaner & Florido discovered.  These octahedra tessellate with spaces in between.  A tetrahedron can fit in each of the empty spaces creating a tessellating network of octahedra and tetrahedra – the same gravitational cellular structure that Conrad Ranzan found.  It is also the structure of the Isotropic Vector Matrix, the structure of the Aether according to Nassim Haramein and Buckminster Fuller.


These theoretical speculations are compatible with present observations of the large scale structure as delineated by the distribution of superclusters.  It is easy to identify at least four of these giant octahedra in real data, which comprise observational support for the egg-carton universe…Nearly all the important superclusters in the catalog by Einasto et al 1997, as well as nearly all the important voids in the catalog by Einasto et al 1994 can be located within the octahedron structure.  This web is slightly distorted by the presence of the very massive Piscis-Cetus supercluster in one of the filaments.”28



A Fractal Octahedral Web

“A fractal nature could be compatible with the octahedron web, in agreement with the identification of fractals by Lindner et al 1996 from the observational point of view.  There could be sub-octahedra within octahedra, at least in a limited range of length scales…The scale of the fractal structure would range from 150 Mpc, i.e. slightly lower than the deepest surveys, down to about 10 Mpc, as shorter scale magnetic fields would have been destroyed by the resistive radiation dominated universe. Whether the fractal egg-carton structure continues indefinitely for larger scales as suggested by Labini et al 1998 and others, remains an open question, but Battaner proposed this structure under the adoption of the Homogeneity Cosmological Principle at large enough scales.”29



Cosmic Building Blocks30

“The bubble interior [of the cosmic cell] would be a void, but the bubble wall would be the site of vigorous activity.”31

The ideal Voronoi shape and the ideal cosmic cell is the rhombic dodecahedron.

Nature, on her grandest structural scale, has an asymmetry and possibly random flaws as well.

Therefore, Cosmic bubbles may take the shape of either the rhombic or the rhombic-trapezoidal dodecahedron.

The rhombic dodecahedron and the rhombic-trapezoidal dodecahedron


The DSSU is an infinite array of such shapes.  The shape of the cosmic cells is determined by the Voronoi principle.

The size of the cells is determined by the equilibrium between the rates of expansion and contraction.

The size, based on astronomical observations is 350 million light-years in diameter.

The building block of the DSSU is the dodecahedron – the closest-packed polyhedron with 12 identical rhombus faces, 24 edges, and 14 nodes.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Each node is a center of gravity of a rich galaxy cluster.

There is observable presence of at least one super-giant elliptical galaxy at each node.

14 galaxy clusters are linked by 24 filamentous arms.  The arms represent the extensions of various galaxy clusters.

Cosmic cells are never isolated.  Nodes are always shared with neighboring cells.



Major and Minor Nodes – Rhombic Dodecahedron32

Nodes absorb matter moving away from the voids and towards the filaments and clusters and aggregate the material.


Minor nodes are where three filamentous arms meet.

There are eight minor nodes.  The minor nodes absorb material from four filaments.

These correspond to four-branch galaxy clusters.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Major nodes are where four filamentous arms meet.

There are six major nodes.  The major nodes absorb material from eight filaments.

These correspond to eight-branch galaxy clusters.

Minor nodes (top) & major nodes (bottom).  Credit: Conrad Ranzan


This is the reason behind the variation in material aggregation and variation in observed richness of galaxy clusters.

There are more minor nodes than major – this accounts for the prevalence of moderate sized clusters and scarcity of major sized clusters.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan



Major and Minor nodes – Rhombic-Trapezoid Dodecahdron33

In the rhombic-trapezoid dodecahedron two minor nodes may be directly linked.  Or, two major nodes may be directly linked.

12 out of 14 nodes are paired this way.



Rhombic vs. Trapezoid34

When the cosmic cell is a rhombic structure galaxy clusters are equally spaced.

When it is trapezoid, the distance between nearest node clusters may vary by a factor of two.

Two closely spaced nodes can appear as one extra-large galaxy cluster.



Extraordinary Over-density in Galaxy Distribution35

There can be flaws in the regularity of cosmic cells.  Such flaws are known to occur in the surface patterns of thermal convection cells in liquids during carefully controlled lab experiments.



Cellular Collapse

A cell can collapse to a point and become a single node.  Six nodes have then become one.

This results in an anomalously large concentration of links.  All membrane material becomes concentrated at one Supernode.




Supernodes contain up to 32 links.

They have 8 minor nodes with 1 external link or 6 major nodes with 4 external links.


The Great Attractor – ACO 3627

The Great Attractor was first discovered in 1986.  It contains the weight equivalent of tens of thousands of Milky Way galaxies.  It is around 200 million light-years away.

It is a large-scale gravity anomaly in conventional cosmology.

The Great Attractor is a good example of what could possibly be a Supernode.

Another possible Supernode is from the Shapley-Ames Catalog # A3558.



Explaining Right-Angled Walls of Galaxies36

Galaxy sheets (wall of galaxies) are rather common.  There is always a rich cluster at the wall’s center.

Examples are: Cetus Wall; Sculptor Wall; Centaurus Wall; Great Wall (Coma cluster).

Some of the Great Walls meet at right angles!

Sculptor Wall, Centaurus Wall & Great Wall (Coma Cluster)

It is all about tilting and rotating these structures to view them from different angles.



Rhombic Dodecahedron

With the rhombic dodecahedron the planes of all sides meet at right angles.

A hypothetical slice through a pair of dodecahedral cosmic bubbles reveals the main features of galaxy distribution; rich clusters, voids, walls of galaxies and right-angled walls.

Tilt the structure forward and look down on a major node then rotate 45 degrees:  you can see the rhombic faces meet at right angles.

Credit: page 4 “Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained” by Conrad Ranzan



Rhombic-Trapezoid Dodecahedron

With the rhombic-trapezoid dodecahedron the faces also meet at right angles.

Rotate the structure and tilt to look down on a major node at the center:  you can see right angles.

It also shows a pentagonal shape!

Credit: page 4 “Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained” by Conrad Ranzan


Conrad Ranzan tells us, “The deep understanding that is missing from Standard Cosmology is how gravitation consists of three processes, how these processes sustain cosmic gravitation cells, and how those cells “fit together to give the universe its overall shape – its topology.”



Cosmic Gravitation Cells – Octahedra and Tetrahedra37

The Universe is also divided into autonomous cosmic-scale gravitation cells. Although their boundaries are not visible, their centers are most obvious; their centers are the dominant galaxies within rich galaxy clusters. Each and every node of the dodecahedral structural cell marks the center of a cosmic gravitation cell.  In the grand scheme of things, it is the gravitation cells, with their invisible boundaries, that sustain the Universe’s visible cellular structure.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Contractile gravity and Lambda (radiation expansion) become unified into autonomous gravitation regions.

Ranzan writes, “A cosmic gravity cell is the dynamic region of a galaxy cluster, a region in which all trajectories ultimately terminate at a single dominant nodal galaxy, a region in which all co-moving and free-falling objects/particles ultimately fall into that single galaxy.”


No significantly sized object ever crosses from one cell into another.

Three dimensional gravity cells are centered on major and minor nodes.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan



Minor-node gravity region – Tetrahedron


Minor nodes are the meeting point of four dodecahedral cells.  They take the shape of a tetrahedron.  They have 10 neutral flow points and 4 lobes act to funnel the aether and matter flow towards the regional center of gravity.


Credit: Conrad Ranzan



Major-node gravity region – Octahedron

Major nodes are shaped as an octahedron.  They have 18 neutral flow points and six lobes.  Each lobe is a participant of a separate dodecahedral cell.

Credit: Conrad Ranzan




How the Structural and Gravitational cells fit together – The Super-Octahedron

Credit: Conrad Ranzan


Voids are surrounded by 8 tetrahedral and 6 octahedral cells.

14 gravity cells meet at the void-center.

Octahedra meet octahedra edge to edge.

Octahedra meet tetrahedra face to face.

Tetrahedra meet tetrahedra edge to edge.


The outer surface of such a 14-cell structure has the shape of a super-octahedron with a single void at its very center.

Each structural dodecahedral cell is surrounded by 18 neighbors to create the super-octahedron.



Why don’t the gravitational cells collapse?

They are self-sustaining structures, just like the thermal convection cells we saw above.  New matter is continually forming from aether space.

The continuously forming matter and the continuously forming aether (expansion of aether) feed the inflow and feed the gravity cell.

The more matter that is supplied to the galaxy cluster, the more aether must be supplied to sustain the existence of that same matter.

Matter formation and aether formation represent the supply side.

Primary and secondary gravity processes and the suppression-annihilation of energy and mass represent the consumption side.


Ranzan writes, “The suppression-annihilation of matter takes place within the active cores of non-singularity black holes, without violation of thermodynamics law.  The matter, flowing into these termination cores, leaves the universe.”

These ‘non-singularity black holes’ are the toroid structures we have been discussing.  The matter ‘leaving the universe’ refers to matter leaving the physical universe of space/time and flowing into the invisible metaphysical universe of time/space.

The ‘universes’ are not separate universes.  They are two reciprocal aspects of the One Universe.  When you move through one, you automatically move through the other.  One is seen, the other unseen.



Geometry of the Cosmos

“The cosmos is an interweaving of three basic structures.  The universe is spatially divided into dodecahedra corresponding to the visible bubble-like structures and into tetrahedral and octahedral gravity cells – with each gravity cell having a single multi-branched galaxy cluster at the center.”


Tetrahedra and Octahedra can tessellate – there will be no space between them.  Rhombic dodecahedra can also tessellate.  There will be no space between them.


Note – Remember how the Isotropic Vector Matrix – the matrix of the Aether in the work of Buckminster Fuller and Nassim Haramein – consists of octahedra and tetrahedra fit together?

Credit: Marshall Lefferts


Also note how the egg-carton universe of Battaner and Florido (above) mirrors the DSSU model of an octahedral/tetrahedral universe.




Previously we have been discussing the geometric structure/function/order of the Aether on a subquantum level.  In this article we have expanded our viewpoint to discuss the structure/function/order of the Aether on a galactic macro scale.  These ideas perfectly align with the idea of a fractal-holographic structure of the Universe.  The processes are exactly the same; though they exist at different scales.


Different scientists and thinkers highlight different geometric shapes.  It is important to remember, however, that when you see one Platonic solid, you know each other exists there as well.  This includes the Platonic solids and Archimedean solids, as well as all truncations, stellations and compounds.

Different geometry is activated depending on the fluctuations in consciousness that occur.  We see certain geometries occurring more often on certain scales.

The point is the structure/flow of the Aether (space & time) is geometric in nature.  It behaves as fluid or liquid crystals, containing both the fluid flow properties of liquids, and the geometric crystallization properties of solids.


  1. Loeb, Arthur, Space Structures, Birkhouser Boston, 2012
  2. Edmondson, Amy, A Fuller Explanation: The Synergetic Geometry of R. Buckminster Fuller, Burkhauser Boston, 1987
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.
  6. ibid.
  7. ibid.
  8. Muller, Richard A, The Cosmic Background Radiation and the New Aether Drift, Scientific American, 1978
  9. Aspden, Harold, Planar Boundaries of the Space-Time Lattice, Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, vol. 38, 16 October 1983
  10. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  11. ibid.
  12. ibid.
  14. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  15. ibid.
  16. Kemp, Martin, Visualizations: The Nature Book of Art and Science, University of California Press, 2000
  17. Ferris, Timothy, The Whole Shebang, Simon & Schuster, N.Y., 1997
  18. Finkbeiner, Douglas, Giant Bubbles Tower over the Milky Way, Scientific American, July 2014,
  20. Ranzan, Conrad, “DSSU Validated by Redshift Theory and Structural Evidence,” Physics Essays, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp 455-473 (2015 Dec) (Doi: (Posted at:
  21. ibid.
  22. Gregory, S.A. and L.A. Thompson, The Astrophysical Journal, 15 June 1978
  23. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  24. ibid.
  25. Einasto, Jann, Large Scale Structure, 17 November 2000,
  26. Thompson, Laird A and Stephen A Gregory, An Historical View: the Discovery of Voids in the Galaxy Distribution, 6 September 2011,
  27. Battaner, E. and E. Florido, Large Scale Structure and Magnetic Fields, 1997,
  28. ibid.
  29. ibid.
  30. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  31. Ostriker, Jeremiah P. and Paul J. Steinhardt, The Quintessential Universe, Scientific American, 200,
  32. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  33. ibid.
  34. ibid.
  35. ibid.
  36. Ranzan, Conrad, Cosmic-Scale Structural Features Explained,
  37. Ranzan, Conrad, Large-Scale Structure of the Dynamic Steady State Universe. American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 65-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20160406.11
  38. ibid.


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