In this article we will take a brief detour through the mind of a schizophrenic in order to better understand the psychology of this fragmented condition.
Paranoia & Schizophrenia
“The term schizophrenia, with the authority of psychology, becomes a mass coverall in which the integrity of personal meaning is given a mass, generalized explanation.
Those who are paranoid are, unfortunately, those who most firmly believe the worst idiocies of science and religion.
The paranoid and the schizophrenic are trying to find meaning in a world they have been taught is meaningless, and their tendencies appear in lesser form throughout society.”1
“The term “schizophrenia” is of basically little value. The label is highly misleading and negatively suggestive.
What you are dealing with in many instances are exhibitions of various, sometimes quite diverse personality patterns of behavior – patterns that are, however, not as assimilated, or as smoothly operative as they are in the person you call normal.
The person labeled schizophrenic, momentarily or for varying periods of time, lacks a certain kind of psychological veneer. This is not so much a basic lack of psychological finish as it is the adoption of a certain kind of psychological camouflage.
Because ideas and beliefs have this electromagnetic reality, then, constant interplay between strongly contradictory beliefs can cause great power blocks, impeding the flow of inner energy outward. At times a polarization can occur. Unassimilated beliefs, unexamined ideas, can seem to adopt a life of their own. These can effectively dominate certain areas of activity.”2
Short Episodes of Schizophrenia
“There are countless instances where “schizophrenic episodes” occur in otherwise normal personalities, where for learning purposes and periods of growth the personality sorts its parts out, and helps them enlarge their framework.
Schizophrenia often begins around puberty, or young adulthood, when people feel that their youthful promise is expected to bear fruit.
If they have been considerably gifted, for example, they are not supposed to show the results of schooling through adult accomplishments. If they are nearly convinced however, that the self is also dangerous or evil, then they become afraid of using their abilities, and indeed become more frightened of the self – which, again, they then try to conquer by dividing.
They feel cut off from value fulfillment. In a fashion they begin to act opaquely in the world, showing a divided face.”3
The Mind of the Schizophrenic
“Such people – in a fashion – play a game of quite serious hide-and-seek with themselves and with the world. They believe in the dictum: “Divide and conquer.”
The idea behind this is: “If you cannot find me, then I cannot be held accountable for my actions – actions which are bound in one way or another to betray me.”
The self becomes operationally scattered or divided, so that if one portion of it is attacked, the other portions can rise up in defense. Such persons use the various elements of the personality as spies or soldiers, scattering their forces, and forced under those conditions to set up elaborate communication systems to keep those portions of the self in contact with each other.
In times of stress, they set up an even greater isolation of one part of the self from another, which puts stress upon the system of communications, so that is must be used constantly.
The communications themselves are often a kind of psychological or symbolic code, such as might indeed be used in military intelligence. If the messages were to be clearly deciphered and understood, then of course the game would be over, for the one to understand the message would be the united self who had felt the need of such camouflaged self-troops to begin with. Such a person does feel under siege.
Often such people are highly creative, with good reserves of energy, but caught between highly contrasting beliefs, either of good and evil, or power and weakness. They are usually extremely idealistic, but for various reasons they do not feel that the abilities of the idealized self can be actualized. Such people, as a rule, have an exaggerated version of the self, so idealized that its very existence intimidates practical action.
They are afraid of making mistakes, terrified of betraying this sensed inner psychological superior. Usually, such an idealized inner self comes from the acceptance of highly distorted beliefs – again, concerning good and evil.
You end up with what amounts to two main inner antagonists: a superior self and a debased self. The qualities considered good are attracted to the superior self as if it were a magnet. The qualities that seem bad are in the same fashion attracted to the debased self. Both of them, relatively isolated psychological polarities, hold about equal sway. All other psychological evidences that are ambitious, or not clearly understood by either side, group together under their own psychosocial banners.
This is a kind of circular rather than linear arrangement, however, psychologically speaking.”4
The Schizophrenic & Fear
“Such people are afraid of their own energy. It becomes assigned on the one hand as a possession of the superior self – in which case it must be used for great adventures, heroic deeds.
On the other hand, the person feels unable to use energy in a normal fashion, since in the ordinary world no venture could live up to the superior self’s exaggerated ideals.
The persona then becomes frightened of pitting himself against the world, or committing himself to ordinary actions, since he feels that in the light of such comparisons he can only debase himself.”5
The Schizophrenic & Powerlessness
“He requires undue amounts of praise and attention from others, since he obviously will get little from himself.
In a fashion, to an extent he will refuse to be accountable for his actions – therefore taking them out of the frame of judgment within which other people must operate. He then can avoid putting his “talents and superior abilities” to the test, where he feels he would certainly fail.
He half realizes that the superior self and the debased self are both of psychological manufacture. His abilities are not really that grand. His failures are not nearly that disastrous.
The belief in these highly contrasting elements of personality keep him in a state of turmoil, so that he feels powerless to act in any concerted fashion.
Most of the declared instances of telepathy or clairvoyance that happen in schizophrenic situations are instead the individual’s attempts to prove to himself or herself that the idealized qualities of omnipotence or power are indeed within grasp – this, of course, to compensate for the basic feeling of powerlessness in more ordinary endeavors.”6
The Schizophrenic & “Good & Evil”
“Often the person labeled schizophrenic is so frightened of his or her own energy, impulses, and feelings that these are fragmented, objectified, and seem to come from outside rather than from within.
Ideas of good and evil are exaggerated, cut off from each other.
Yet here again the creative abilities are allowed some expression. The person does not feel able to express them otherwise. Such people are afraid of the brunt of their own personalities. They have been taught that energy is wrong, that power is disastrous, and that the impulses of the self are to be feared.
What protection, then, but to effectively project these outside of the self — impulses of good as well as evil — and hence effectively block organized action.”7
A Case Study: A Demonstration Embodying the Nature and Power of Beliefs
“This man was a study, a living example, of the effects of conflicting unexamined beliefs, a fierce and yet agonized personification of what can happen when an individual allows his conscious mind to deny its responsibilities—i.e., when an individual becomes afraid of his own consciousness.
Here was a young man whose beliefs were alive with their own life while he was relatively powerless. No effort had been made to reconcile directly opposing beliefs, until the personality itself was quite literally polarized.
He had what could be called a classic instance of secondary personality.
I am discussing it here because it so beautifully illustrates the nature and power of beliefs, and the conflicts that can arise when an individual does not accept responsibility for his own thoughts.
This is not a usual case—but to some extent or another, such a division occurs physically or mentally when the contents of the conscious mind are not examined.
This man requested help. Upon entering his appointment he bristled with belligerence and hostility.
Having requested help, he then hated himself for the weakness that he believed caused such a need.
He glowered at those attempting to help with great vehemence, projecting all of the energy at command to show that he would not be cowed, and that if anyone took over the situation he would be the one to do so.
He spoke of another personality far more powerful than he – through which, he said, he could force a roomful of a hundred-and-fifty people to follow his commands.
The other personality, however, originated in another galaxy, and came as a friend to help and protect him. At his behest he said this invisible friend killed a lawyer. The lawyer not only did not understand the condition, according to the story, but hurt the feelings of the man under discussion.
We will call the man Augustus.”8
Augustus’s Childhood & Youth
“First of all, Augustus had been told in various ways, “You think too much. You should be doing something physical, involved in sports, more outgoing.” Such repeated remarks, with other childhood conditions, made him afraid of his own mental activity. He also felt unworthy, so how could his thoughts be good?
Feelings of violence accumulated early, but in his family there were no acceptable ways of releasing normal aggressive feelings. When these built up into felt, violent eruptions, Augustus was only the more convinced of his unacceptable nature.
For some time in his normal state as a teenager, he tried harder and harder to be “good.” This meant the banishing of thoughts or impulses that were sexually inspired along various lines, aggressive, or even just unconventional. Considerable energy was used to inhibit these portions of his inner experience. The denied mental events did not disappear, however. They increased in intensity and were kept apart from his “safer” usual thoughts.
Under other circumstances and possessing different characteristics, another individual could damage a physical organ by literally attacking it, as surely as it might be assaulted by a virus.
Because of Augustus’s particular temperament and nature, however, and his native though conventionally undeveloped creativity, he formed a structure rather than destroying one.
In his normal state he accepted only the beliefs he considered were expected of him. There was a time before his condition developed when his “good-self thoughts” and his “bad-self thoughts” vied for his attention, and the body tried desperately to react to constant, alternating and often contradictory concepts.
What developed was a situation in which the conflicting sets of thoughts and feelings finally took turns, though Augustus maintained his own integrity for most of the time. But those beliefs that he shoved away were, by attraction, instantly seized by the other mental structure—again, composed of ideas and feelings combined into what you might think of as an invisible cellular organization, with all capabilities of reaction.”9
The Early Development of Augustus’s Condition
“To begin with, Augustus was brought up to believe that the inner self was dangerous, that individuals reacted because of inner conflicts over which they had little conscious control. He believed that the individual personality was relatively powerless to understand itself and that it stood precariously alone and undefended, with a chasm of evil beneath and with an unattainable, cold, just, but not compassionate Good above.
He felt bewildered in a world of opposites.
Conflicting beliefs were uncritically accepted.
The conscious mind will always attempt to make sense out of its beliefs, to form them into patterns and sequences. It will usually organize ideas in as rational a way as possible, and dispense with those that seem to contradict the overall system of its beliefs.
Augustus had been taught to fear his own thoughts, to avoid self-examination. Beliefs or ideas that frightened him were not faced, therefore, but initially shoved into corners of the conscious mind, where they lay relatively harmlessly in the beginning.
As time went on the number of unexamined, frightening beliefs began to accumulate. Ideas and beliefs do feed upon themselves. There is within them a built-in impetus toward growth, development and fulfillment.
Over the years two opposing systems of beliefs built up strongly, vying for Augustus’s attention. He believed that he was utterly powerless as an individual, that despite all his efforts he would come to nothing, go unnoticed. He felt completely unloved. He did not feel worthy of love.
In his normal condition Augustus thought of his own powerlessness—for he had denied himself normal aggressive action—and felt this weak.
The beliefs activated the body’s cellular memory, weakening the body and impeding its function.
Yet for a time, while performance was dulled it was steady. A balance was maintained that suited his purposes.
He became afraid that the body would go out of control and commit violent action, because he was of course aware of the strength of the denied thoughts and feelings.
At the same time he let his conscious mind wander, and to compensate saw himself as all-powerful, contemptuous of his fellow human beings, and able to work greater vengeance upon them for their misunderstanding of him.
In this line of beliefs he was able to do anything—cure mankind’s ills if he chose, or withhold such knowledge from the world to punish it.”10
The Creation of Augustus Two
“Now all of these ideas were quite conscious, but he held each group separately.
The conscious mind, again, tries to obtain overall integrity and unity, lining up its beliefs into some kind of consistent system. When opposing beliefs that directly contradict each other are held for any length of time, and attempt is made to reconcile them, then a “battle” begins within the conscious mind itself.
Since it is the beliefs of the conscious mind that regulate the involuntary bodily motions and the entire physical system, then contradictory beliefs obviously set up adverse physical reactions and imbalances.
Before Augustus’s opposing beliefs lined themselves up into separate camps the body was in continual turmoil; contradictory messages were constantly sent to the muscular system and the heart. The hormonal system teetered. Even his physical temperature varied rather drastically.
Because like ideas do attract like, both electromagnetic and emotionally, the conscious mind found itself with complete contradictory systems of belief, and two self-images. To protect the integrity of the physical structure Augustus’s conscious mind neatly divided itself up. No longer were the minute-to-minute messages to the body scrambled. The part of Augustus who felt powerful and alien became personified.
When Augustus felt threatened then the conscious mind switched over, accepting as operating procedure the system of beliefs in which Augustus saw himself a powerful, secure—but as alien.
This part of his beliefs, therefore, and this particular self-image, took over his conscious mind and became what we will here call Augustus Two. Augustus Two was filled with a sense of power—because Augustus considered power wrong and set it aside from what he thought of as his normal self.
Yet Augustus knew the body needed the vitality that he had denied it.
Therefore enter Augustus Two with his great ideas of extraordinary power, vigor and superiority—and with fantasies of exceptional heroism and the memories of all of those denied by Augustus himself. Aggressive action conveniently forgotten by Augustus was now recalled with exuberant glee by Augustus Two. As a result the chemical nature of the body was instantly revitalized. Muscular tone was greatly improved. There were changes in the amount of sugar in the blood and an alteration in the flow of energy throughout the body.
When Augustus Two assumed leadership then the physical body itself was not only strong and powerful, but capable of physical feat surpassing those of Augustus One.
Augustus Two, you see, believes that his body is nearly invincible, and following this belief the body does perform much better. Augustus Two believes that he is an alien. In this case the rationale—because there must be one—is that he is a being from another planet, in fact from another galaxy.
His purpose in this case is quite clear and simple: He is to help Augustus One, to use his power on the latter’s behalf, rewarding his friends and terrifying his enemies. Augustus One quite deeply believes he needs this kind of help.
Now this is a split of the conscious mind. It does not originate within the inner self.
When Augustus Two takes over he is quite conscious. He simply views physical reality through an undeviating system of beliefs. The messages sent to the body are not in the least contradictory. The body is under excellent control.
Augustus One’s moods of course were a direct result of the ideas he was entertaining. It was this unceasing swing from high states of exaltation and power to low ones of powerlessness and depression that the body could not tolerate, because of the vast alterations entailed.
For the greater periods of time Augustus One predominates, since his ideas of worthlessness, in your terms, were adopted earlier; and worse—are only reinforced by the contrast between him and Augustus Two.
Augustus Two comes on sometimes for as long as a week at a time. He does all the things and says all the things that Augustus One would dearly love to do and say, with only certain safeguards.
Augustus One, however, is not literally unconscious during this time, but quite aware of the “vicarious” activities and fulfillments.
Again, it is a game of hide-and-seek, in which the so-called unconscious mind is relatively innocent.
Augustus Two can therefore rant and rave, lie and cheat, assert himself, show his contempt for his fellows, and absolve Augustus One of any responsibility.”11
Augustus Two’s Role
“Now: There is nothing evil in the nature of Augustus Two.
In spiritualistic circles however he would most certainly be interpreted as an evil spirit or guide. His nature is protective. The basic ideas and beliefs that have been personified into his being, that became his being, were formed to protect Augustus One from the destructive ideas given to him in his childhood, to combat the beliefs in powerlessness and futility. To that degree they were added onto the original ideas, but still at an early age; so it was from the child’s concept of a powerful being that Augustus Two sprang.
The greater the feelings of weakness then the greater the compensating feelings of power and strength—but, again, with no attempt at conscious reconciliation.”12
How and Why Augustus Two Takes Over
“Augustus’s mother noted only that her son seemed highly changeable. Augustus Two did not present himself as obviously “another personality” until after Augustus’s marriage when the demands of fatherhood and making a living were placed upon him. He could not cope.
His beliefs in his unworthiness prevented him from using his abilities, or even pursuing a course of effective action with any persistence. It was then that Augustus Two began to assert himself—and to Augustus’s wife.
In his own way Augustus would prove to her that she was married to quite an unusual, powerful man, a paragon of virility and strength; but Augustus One must appear as Augustus Two to her. This continued for some time.
Augustus One would first develop a splitting headache, and then this alien from outer space would arrive: the commanding male that Augustus One was not. Here, however, the “deception” brought about certain difficulties. Not only was Augustus Two more promiscuous, but by contrast Augustus One seemed very pallid indeed. Augustus Two was originally intended to help One.
It’s true that the exotic conditions spilled over, casting some glamor on Augustus One when Augustus Two left for a time, but the contrast was too blatant, too out in the open. Augustus One, still the primary personality, became even more frightened. He knew that gradually Augustus Two was outliving his purpose, showing him up, and had to go. In fact, once Augustus Two obviously “took over” the body of Augustus One, it was all out in the open in the family.
The wife began to take notes of what was done and said. When these events were repeated to Augustus One later, the lying and cheating was evident. So was the infantile nature of the “personality”; yet Augustus Two purported to be all-wise, from a galaxy far surpassing Earth in every category of endeavor. And here he was making predictions that never happened, and boasting and lying like a trouper.
The beliefs whose energy generated this “alternate self-image” then appeared in the daylight, acting out their natural results in physical reality. Augustus One, now in manhood, was forced to perceive the nature of these beliefs to some extent, yet he was refusing to examine them.”13
The Merging of Augustus One & Two
“Augustus Two has not taken over now for two and one-half months. Augustus is in a dilemma, for he still holds intact the beliefs in his own powerlessness, and the contradictory beliefs of omnipotence are not now being expressed through Augustus Two.
When attempting to receive help — at one moment came through with his gigantic belligerence, and in the next moment the great plea for help would surface, the love of his wife and child.
In one sentence Augustus would make a statement, and ten minutes later make it clear with another remark that the first fact had not been true. Here the polarity between Augustus One and Two had dissolved, so that the two opposing systems of belief operated alongside each other.
Still Augustus would not examine his own words, his own thoughts, or see the contradictions so obvious to others. The two “personalities” were no longer separate, but merging.
Augustus said, “My friend killed a neighbor of mine who was against me by giving him pneumonia. He looks out for me.” Another neighbor has ulcers, and Augustus said that after he touched this neighbor the ulcers seemed to have been healed. So he said, “I would like to know how much of this great ability belongs to me.” And looking briefly away: “Perhaps I do not need my friend to protect me after all.”
Now this was definitely to the good, in that Augustus was beginning to feel that perhaps he was not powerless.
His own personality however, is left to handle the definitely unsavory characteristics of an Augustus Two who is no longer personified. He is left with the questions: “If I am so powerful, how is it that I am so weak, and cannot even support my family? If I am so great, why cannot I effectively use my energy?”
For the body of Augustus is once again under the sway of beliefs about himself that are highly contradictory. Before, he was physically powerful when he was Augustus Two, and weak when he was Augustus One. Now as Augustus he is alternately strong and weak, and the body stresses are apparent.
As Augustus Two he could stay up night and day and perform physical tasks quite difficult for the normal human being for he operated under the indivisible idea of power and strength. It has taken some courage for him to let Augustus Two vanish.
Because the neat division of beliefs no longer exists however, he will seem even more difficult to his wife since the characteristics of Augustus Two now “bleed into” his own. He will lie for example where before only Augustus Two lied.
Here then is a case where directly opposing beliefs dominated the conscious mind at various times, each operating the body in its own manner.
Physically the body has the same capacity for strength regardless of which group of ideas were dominant; but practically speaking, Augustus One was incapable of performing the feats of Augustus Two.
Augustus Two once leaped from a second-story window to the ground in anger, and without injury—a highly unusual feat. Augustus, however, is so exhausted that he can barely get through a normal day.
You had a situation in which an individual, through beliefs, put his power and energy literally beside himself. He could use it only when he switched beliefs completely. It was only because the childlike characteristics of Augustus Two finally appeared so blatantly that Augustus Two had to be dispensed with.
Augustus’s wife made the difference, for it was obvious that she did not have the same opinion of this “friend” that her husband had. Her beliefs then became the new foundation, the one point of change that allowed Augustus to view this alternate self-image with any kind of detachment at all.”14
The Destructiveness of Inhibiting “Bad” Thoughts
“The body behaves as you think it must behave, so Augustus and Augustus Two, with their alternating patterns of behavior, caused the body to react in quite different ways.
Forget now that in this case such a division occurred, and imagine instead the successive thoughts and feelings that you possess.
When you feel weak you are weak. When you feel joyful your body benefits and becomes stronger.
Augustus’s case simply shows in exaggerated form the effects of your beliefs upon your physical image. If you think, “Aha, then from now on I will only think good thoughts—and therefore healthy, and inhibit my ‘bad’ thoughts, or do anything at all with them but think them,” then in your own way you are doing what Augustus did.
He began by believing that some his thoughts were so evil that they must somehow be made nonexistent. So inhibiting what you consider as negative thoughts, or assuming that they are so terrible, is no answer.”15
Modern Western Treatment of Schizophrenia
“There is no real adequate framework in your society in which people like Augustus can be treated with any effectiveness. An analyst might consider Augustus as schizophrenic and label him neatly, but such terms are basically meaningless. If the analyst, over a period of time, should convince Augustus his condition in the present resulted from some specific inhibited event in the past, and if the analyst was intuitive understanding, then Augustus might change his beliefs enough so that some kind of “cure” was worked. He would then conveniently remember such an event and display the expected emotions as he re-experienced it.
Unfortunately in his present state, powerless as it were without Augustus Two, he might also simply call on his “alter ego” to show the good doctor that he was no one to trifle with. Then there would be the matter of helping Augustus to face the implications of his other-self’s behavior in such a way that he could accept it as a portion of his whole identity.
When Augustus Two was in control of the body the chemical makeup varied considerably. It showed significant differences over Augustus’s usual hormonal status. The chemical changes were caused by the transition in beliefs that operated, and not the other way around. If chemical alteration were made in Augustus Two he would return to the Augustus One personality, but the change would be artificial—not permanent, and possibly quite dangerous. The chemically inhibited tendencies would to some extent be forcefully blanketed through medication. The problem would remain, though, and it is quite possible that overt suicidal tendencies could result; or more insidious hidden suicidal inclinations, where vital organs would be attacked.”16
Religious Treatment of Schizophrenia
“Sometimes such cases are handled within another framework, in which Augustus would be considered possessed by an independent “evil” entity whenever Augustus Two took over.
Now again, if Augustus somehow changed his beliefs it is possible that even within that framework some kind of cure would be effected. But at the same time the dangers and difficulties would make such a cure relatively impossible.
If a practitioner who believed that Augustus was possessed then convinced Augustus of the “fact,” their joint charged beliefs might possibly work for a while. Convincing Augustus that he was under the domination of an evil entity would be step one. Step two, getting rid of the intruder, could at least follow.
The trouble is that working within that framework, the self-structure is further weakened, for the normally repressed characteristics of Augustus Two are forever denied. Augustus must then always be “good,” and yet he would always feel vulnerable to another such invasion of evil.
The same results as those given could be possible: the growth of suicidal tendencies or other self-destructive behavior.”17
Self-treatment of Schizophrenia – Method One
“Luckily the human mind and body are far more flexible, durable and creative than ever given credit for. Many cases like Augustus’s never come to light. The individuals involved cure themselves.
Sometimes this is done when such a person chooses to undergo a traumatic experience – often a part of the personality will plan this quite deliberately while the other portion closes its eyes. These events can seem to be disasters or near disasters, and yet they can sufficiently mobilize the entire personality for survival’s sake.
In a moment of high critical tension the personality may put itself together again. Such critical-uniting episodes usually do not involve long sicknesses, though they may, but instead events such as bad accidents.
The difficulty may be exteriorized as a broken limb for example, instead of a broken self, and as the body is repaired the necessary assimilation of belief takes place. There are various kinds and stages in such cases. Each individual is unique.”18
Self-treatment of Schizophrenia – Method Two
“Sometimes the framework includes another method of cure, in which portions of each conflicting side of the personality break off to form a clearer psychological structure which can communicate with the other two, act as a referee, and reconcile the opposing beliefs held by each. This is done many times without the main personality realizing what is really going on. On occasion automatic writing is utilized, or the Ouija board.
Both are methods to uncover invisible conscious beliefs—that are accepted by you consciously at any given time, say, and deliberately ignored at another time.
When people using such methods are told that their writing comes through from a demon or the devil, or an evil spirit, then those invisible beliefs are shoved farther away. Any search into the mind becomes frightening and dangerous, since it might lead to further such “invasion.”
Now such invasion is usually the sudden appearance of previously unacceptable beliefs, quite conscious but invisible, tucked away. Then they suddenly appear as alien. In most instances the possession concept makes it all the more upsetting. Easier to face, often, is the idea that the responsibility for such ideas must belong to another entity or being.
In all cases of this nature involving Augustus-type episodes, the problem is one of unassimilated beliefs. Instead of such comparatively drastic behavior, however, such beliefs can be expressed through various parts of the body.
Unfortunately, a system of medicine that largely deals with symptoms only encourages a patient to project such beliefs on new organs, for instance, after already sacrificing others in operations.”19
The Solutions Lie Within – Help is Available from Outside
“The solutions lie in the conscious mind—I cannot emphasize this too strongly—and in those beliefs that you accept about the nature of reality and, specifically, about the nature of your being.
While the most basic work must be done by the individual, help is always available from a variety of sources, both within and without.
You will literally interpret and use almost any data that comes to you as helpful, and it will be highly effective—unless your beliefs lead you to think, perhaps, that everyone is against you, or that you are beyond help, or that you do not deserve it. Other such ideas can also close you off from help, of course, but you will instinctively look for it and use it when possible.”20
- Roberts, Jane, The Individual and the Nature of Mass Events, Amber-Allen Publishing, 1981
- Roberts, Jane, Dreams, Evolution and Value Fulfillment, Amber-Allen Publishing, 1986
- Roberts, Jane, The Individual and the Nature of Mass Events, Amber-Allen Publishing, 1981
- Roberts, Jane, The Nature of Personal Reality, Amber-Allen Publishing, 1974